Guha abana amata mu mashuri: Inzozi nziza mu nzira nzitane

Sangiza abandi

Bwa mbere mu mateka y’u Rwanda hatangijwe umushinga wo guha abana amata ku mashuri mu rwego rwo kunganira amafunguro bahafatira, ariko iki gikorwa kiracyatambamiwe na byinshi ku mpamvu zinyuranye.

Mu Rwanda kuva mu mwaka wa 2015 hatangijwe iyiswe inkongoro y’umwana, igenera abana biga mu mashuri abanza n’ay’inshuke amata ku ishuri nibura kabiri mu cyumweru, mu rwego rwo kubongerera intungamubiri mu mirire muri gahunda yo kurwanya igwingira ry’abana. Iyi gahunda yakwirakwijwe hose mu gihugu ku bufatanye bwa minisiteri  y’uburinganire n’Iterambere ry’Umuryango, Minisiteri y’Ubutegetsi bw’Igihugu , Minisiteri y’uburezi na Minisiteri y’Ubuzima.

Umwihariko mushya wa Minisiteri y’Uburezi wabaye uwo gusaba ko aya mata bayahabwa buri gihe, kandi nibura buri mwana agahabwa inusu ya litiro y’amata buri munsi harimo n’abo mu mashuri yisumbuye.

Nubwo umushinga utagaragaza ko hari abakwiye kuyabona abandi ntibayabone, biranga bikagenda bityo bidatewe no kuvangura abayahabwa n’abatayahabwa, ahubwo imiterere y’aho ikigo cy’ishuri kiboneka, ubushobozi bw’ababyeyi n’ubw’ibigo ndetse n’ingano y’amata aboneka aho ishuri riherereye. Ibyo byose bigira icyo byunganira cyangwa bizitira mu guha abana amata ku mashuri.

BIMWE MU BIGARAGAZA UBRYO UYU MUSHINGA UKIRI INZOZI, ARIKO ZINASHOBOKA

  • Ingengo y’imari nke

Ubusanzwe Leta igenera ibigo by’ishuri amafaranga 56 kuri buri mwana, buri munsi. Abayobozi benshi b’ibigo by’amashuri bavuga ko aya mafaranga ari make cyane, ku buryo nta funguro rifatika ryavamo, ari nayo mpamvu bakunze kugabura akawunga n’ibishyimbo gusa.

Muri rusange bamwe muri aba bayobozi (twavuganye) , batakunze ko dutangaza amazina yabo cyangwa y’ibigo bayobora, bongeraho ko gufata aya mafaranga 56  ku ifunguro ukanayaguramo inusu ya Litiro y’amata yo guha umunyeshuri uyandikiwe, ngo bitabashobokera, n’iyo babikora ngo baba bakoresha ingengo y’imari isanzwe y’ishuri, bikadindiza ibindi bikorwa ibigo bayoboye biba bikeneye kugeraho.

Umuyobozi umwe w’ishuri (…) mu Karere ka Rubavu yagize ati: “No guhemba abarimu haba ubwo bigorana, none amafaranga yose ngo tuyagure amata?” Uyu muyobozi yongeyeho ko nta mafaranga bigeze bongererwa ngo nibura yitwe ayo kugura aya mata basabwa guha abanyeshuri.

Twagerageje gushaka amakuru muri Minisiteri y’Uburezi (MINEDUC) ku bijyanye no kuba hari nibura amafaranga Minisiteri yaba yarateganyije yo kongera ingengo y’imari muri iki gikorwa, ariko umuyobozi ubifite mu nshingano ntiyemeye kugira icyo abidutangarizaho.

  • Amikoro make (Ubukene) mu miryango

Nubwo ababyeyi basabwa gutanga umusanzu wo kugurira  amata abana babo, imwe mu mbogamizi zikomeye ni amikoro make mu miryango.   Hari n’abadatinya kubyita ubukene bukabije,  butuma no mu ngo batarya uko babyifuza.  Kubona amafaranga y’ishuri ngo bisanzwe bibagora, ay’amafunguro ku ishuri nayo akaba aje nk’undi muzigo.

Munana Yotamu afite abana batatu mu mashuri abanza n’undi umwe mu mashuri yisumbuye, atuye mu Mudugudu wa Bitaro, Akagari ka Haniro mu murenge Manihira, Akarere ka Rutsiro mu Ntara y’Uburengerazuba, yadutangarije ko iyo amashuri atangiye ubuzima busa n’ubuhagaze.

Nubwo kwiga byiswe ubuntu, ngo ibyo bishyura ku ruhande ni byinshi. Munana ati: “Abana iyo batangiye, kubabonera ibikoresho biba bihenze cyane, kubishyurira agahimbazamusyi ka mwalimu na byo biraduhenda. Mu minsi ishize haje igaburo ku ishuri, badusaba amafaranga none ngo turasabwa no gutanga ay’amata, tuzayavana he? Natwe ubwacu kutayanywa si ukuyanga, ahubwo nta bushobozi tubifitiye”.

Nyiramugwera nawe wo mu Karere ka Rutsiro we yaravuze ngo “ Jye ntayo nzabona rwose, n’ayo kubagaburira ku ishuri ntayo nifitiye, bajye bihangana barye batashye dusangirire mu rugo”.

Mukamabano w’i Nemba we yavuze ko ikibazo cyo kongera amafaranga atangwa ku ishuri ngo abana babashe kubona amata yumva cyafatirwa umwanzuro mu nama y’ababyeyi, ariko ubwo iyi nama yateranaga ababyeyi ntibabashije kubivugaho rumwe ngo babyemeze.

  • Amata make mu gihugu

U Rwanda si igihugu gikennye amata ku buryo bene cyo barwara ubworo. Ariko na none ubwinshi bw’abanyeshuri mu mashuri, no kuba buri wese yabona inusu y’amata buri munsi, ntibyashoboka.

Mu kugerageza kumenya ingano y’amata atunganywa mu nganda zabigize umwuga zo mu Rwanda, ntibyadukundiye kuko abo muri izo nganda babyise amabanga y’ikigo (confidential information).

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Abana mu mashuri amwe n’amwe batangiye guhabwa amata, ariko si buri munsi

Cyakora mu mibare twahawe na Minisiteri y’ubuhinzi (MINAGRI), ishami rishinzwe umusaruro w’ibikomoka ku matungo, inganda zitunganya amata mu Rwanda ni 35, intoya ni 31, inini zo ni enye: Savannah, Inyange, Nyanza na Mukamira.

Buri munsi, Uruganda rwa Inyange rutunganya 100.000 Lt, Uruganda rwa Mukamira (rwahoze rwitwa Gishwati) rugatunganya 40.000Lt,  Uruganda rwa Nyanza (rwahoze rwitwa Ikaragiro rya Nyabisindu) rugatunganya 20.000 Lt, naho  Savannah Diary igatunganya 30.000 Lt. Inganda ntoya zisigaye uko ari 31 nazo zitunganya amata akabakaba 300.000 Lt

Dr Ngarambe Charles, Umuyobozi muri MINAGRI, akaba anakuriye iterambere ry’Amakoperative y’Aborozi avuga ko abaturage ubwabo mu nzira zihariye  batunganya mu buryo bwabo gakondo amata asaga gato 1.500.000 Lt, wakongeraho n’atunganywa na za nganda, bikagaragara ko mu Rwanda habasha gukamwa amata agera kuri litiri miliyoni ebyiri buri munsi, mu bihe byiza.

Dr Ngarambe yongeraho ariko ko amata agera ku isoko ari 60%, akabakaba litito 1.200.000, kuko andi agera kuri 40 % yangirika cyangwa akarangirira mu borozi hasi adatuganyirijwe kunyobwa.

Umukamo ku ruhande rwa Minisiteri y’Imali, ku ngengo y’imari ya 2018/2019 mu gika cy’imibereho myiza harimo ahateganyijwe gutanga amata angana na Litiro ibihumbi 86,980 mu mashuri muri gahunda y’inkongoro y’umwana.

Uyu musanzu wa Leta ugaragara nk’aho ari muto cyane, kuko n’iyo yatangirwa rimwe, ntiyasaranganywa abanyeshuri bayakeneye mu gihugu hose umunsi umwe ngo bikunde.

Niduhuza imibare ya Minisiteri y’Ubuhinzi n’iya Minisiteri y’Uburezi, iratugaragariza ko n’iyo haboneka uburyo bwo kwishyura no kugeza ayo mata kuri buri kigo, mu Rwanda ntabasha kuhaboneka.

Twagerageje inzira zose zishoboka zo kubona amakuru y’umubare w’abanyeshuri bari mu mashuri kugeza ubu, abo twanyuzeho bose muri Minisiteri y’Uburezi batubera ibamba, bavuga ko iyo mibare itabasha gutangazwa, ari ibanga rikomeye. Ushinzwe itangazamakuru muri iyi Minisiteri we yatugiriye inama yo gukoresha imibare y’umwaka ushize, ariko twasanze iyi mibare itari guhura n’ukuri kw’ibiriho ubu, kuko buri mwaka umubare w’abana mu mashuri urazamuka kandi mu byiciro byose.

Mu gukomeza gucukumbura twasomaga ibitabo, website ya MINEDUC, kimwe n’izindi nyandiko zabo zose, kugeza ubwo duhuye n’umubare mbumbe iyi Minisiteri yatangaje ku rubuga rwayo rwa Twitter, twifashisha iyo, kuko ari yo mishya yonyine yashyize ahabona.

Iyi niyo mibare ya nyuma y’abanyeshuri mu Rwanda, yashyizwe ahabona na MINEDUC

Dufatiye ku banyeshuri babarurwa na Minisiteri y’Uburezi mu Rwanda muri uyu mwaka, bangana na 3.626.362 mu byiciro byose, tukavanamo abakabakaba 100.000 bo mu mashuri Makuru na za Kaminuza, harasigara abasaga gato miliyoni eshatu n’igice babarirwa mu byiciro Minisiteri y’Uburezi isabira amata buri munsi, ni ukuvuga abo mu mashuri y’inshuke, amashuri abanza, n’abo mu mashuri yisumbuye.

Kugira ngo abanyeshuri 3.500.000 babone buri wese nibura inusu (1/2 Lt) y’amata buri munsi, hakenewe nibura litiro 1.750.000, mu gihe nyamara atunganywa mu gihugu hose akagera ku isoko, atarenga 1.200.000 Lt buri munsi.

Aha kandi tubariyemo ko hari n’andi mata menshi akenerwa hanze kunyobwa n’abatari abanyeshuri, hakiyongeraho n’akoreshwa mu ngo, mu nganda zikora ibikenera amata (Imigati, ibiribwa, fromages…), hakiyongeraho n’akoreshwa mu butetsi mu mahoteli ama restora, hakanabarirwamo akenerwa kugurishwa mu nzu z’ubucuruzi n’ahandi, nta kabuza mu Rwanda hakenerwa nibura litiro 5.000.000 zitunganyije buri munsi, mu gihe ahari atagera no kuri 1/3 cyayo.

  • Inzitizi zo kuyageza aho akenewe no kuyabika

Indi mbogamizi kuri iyi gahunda ni uburyo yajya agezwa ku bigo by’amashuri bikabakaba 7.900 harimo  iby’inshuke, by’amashuri abanza,  ayisumbuye ndetse n’ay’imyuga  (TVET)  biri hose mu gihugu (imibare yo mu 2018),  n’uburyo yajya abikwamo ngo atangirika mbere yo kugaburirwa abana mu masaha agenwe.

Esther Mukeshimana Umuyobozi w’Ikigo cy’Amashuri cya Uwingugu mu Karere ka Nyamagabe, avuga ko amata asanzwe agira uburyo atekwamo, akagira n’uburyo arindwa ubushyuhe cyangwa ubukonje bibasha kuyangiza. Ati: “Kuba rero ibigo byinshi bitabona icyumba cyihariye cyo kuyabikamo igihe tuyagemuriwe ari menshi (wenda nk’ayo gukoresha mu cyumweru cyose), n’iyo yaba ahari ahagije, iyi mbogamizi ntiyatuma tuyamarana iminsi irenze umwe atangiritse.

Amata yaje yunganira imirire mu mashuri

Mu kiganiro Minisitiri w’Uburezi, Dr Eugene Mutimura,  yagiranye n’abanyamakuru kuwa 29 Mutarama 2019,   yasobanuye gahunda yafashwe na Leta yo kuba buri mwana agomba kubona amata mu ishuri. Minisitiri Mutimura yagize ati: “Uko biteye uyu munsi abana babagaburira kawunga, ibishyimbo, umuceri n’ibindi, ariko turasaba ko abayobozi b’amashuri batekereza uburyo bushoboka bwose kugira ngo ibyo kurya bagaburira abana bashyiremo amata kuko arahari kandi arahendutse hirya no hino mu byaro. Aho ikigo cy’amashuri wenda cyaguraga nk’ibiro 100 by’akawunga cyangwa by’ibishyimbo, bagabenyeho nk’ibilo 10 cyangwa 20 ahubwo bashyireho amata, n’iyo umwana yabona kimwe cya kabiri cya litiro y’amata …, ibi bizunganira gahunda isanzwe yo kugaburira abana mu mashuri.”

Minisitiri w’Uburezi yabishimangije kubishyira ku rubuga rwe rwa Twitter n’urwa Minisiteri y’Uburezi.

Kuva ubwo kandi Minisiteri yatangiye ibikorwa binyuranye bijyanye n’iyi gahunda, ari nako Minisitiri Dr Eugene Mutimura asaba ko abayobozi b’ibigo by’amashuri batazamura amafaranga y’ishuri (Minerval), dore ko hari hashize icyumweru kimwe gusa umwaka w’ishuri utangiye.

Inshuro ebyiri mu cyumweru, hamwe na hamwe mu Mujyi wa Kamembe bahabwa amata

Abatuye mu mijyi babona amata atunganyijwe yanyuze mu nganda, ariko nabo si hose, kandi si buri gihe.

]Abo mu byaro biri kure bahabwa ayatunganyijwe byoroheje atabanje kunyuzwa mu nganda ziyategura.

Minisitiri w’Ubrezi Dr Mutimura mu gikorwa cyo kugaburira abana bato

Minisitiri yasabye ababyeyi uruhare mu kubonera abana amata ku ishuri

N’ubwo minisiteri y’uburezi ivuga ko ikiguzi cy’ifunguro kitagomba kuzamurwa mu mashuri kubera gahunda yo guha amata abana, kuwa 10/02/2019, Minisitiri w’uburezi yasuye irerero rya Nemba ya mbere, mu Murenge wa Nemba mu Karere ka Gakenke, asaba ababyeyi kugira uruhare mu kuboneka kw’ifunguro ku ishuri, by’umwihariko amata ngo abana barusheho kwiga neza kandi bibarinde igwingira.

Minisitiri Mutimura ntiyabivuze gusa, yarahagurutse atangira kubishyira mu bikorwa

Dr Eugène Mutimura yagize ati: “Kugira ngo iyi gahunda ikomeze igire ingufu ndasaba ko buri mubyeyi agira uruhare mu kubonera umwana amata haba ku ishuri, ndetse no mu muryango ku buryo kuri buri funguro umwana abona nibura ½ cya litiro kugira ngo akomeze kumererwa neza no gukura neza… Ntabwo gahunda y’amata ireba irerero gusa, kuko buri mwana wese akwiye kunywa amata, bayobozi b’ibigo by’amashuri na mwe nimureke kugaburira abana agahunga gusa, ahubwo mubahe amata kuko abamo za karisiyumu, kandi mugure amata na mwe mwumva ko ahendutse kandi afite ubuziranenge, kandi byagaragayeko kunywa amata ku ishuri ari kimwe mu bituma abana bakunda ishuri”.

Minisiteri y’uburezi kandi yibutsa ko iyi gahunda itareba ibigo bya Leta gusa

NTA RIRARENGA, BIRACYASHOBOKA

Gahunda yo kugaburira abana amata ku mashuri ni nziza cyane kandi ni ntamakemwa, ariko inzego zose zibishinzwe zikeneye kwigira hamwe uburyo haboneka umuti ku mbogamizi zigaragazwa n’ababyeyi n’abarezi, kugira ngo ibashe gushyirwa mu bikorwa neza nk’uko yagenwe.

NTWALI John Williams

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