25 Nyakanga: Umunsi wa Cyusa Nkubito Rukabu, umusore udasanzwe

Kuri bamwe, cyane cyane abakiri bato, nibwo bakumva uwitwa “Nkubito y’Imanzi Rukabu”. Si mushya, musanzwe mumuzi, ariko hari byinshi byihariye byamuranze, byihariye mu mateka y’abayoboye u Rwanda.

Yiswe umusore udasanzwe, yiswe umusore w’icyusa (Cyusa), abyinirirwa Nkubito y’Imanzi, bamutazira Rukabu, abatizwa Lewo Karoli Petero , izina ry’ubugabe yitwa Mutara, naho irya Kavukire rikaba Rudahigwa.

Tariki ya 25 Nyakanga ni umunsi abakuze bafashe mu mateka y’u Rwanda nk’umunsi w’Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa, kuko ufite byinshi uhatse mu mpinduka zihuse zabaye mu mateka y’u Rwanda, nyuma y’itanga rye ku itariki ya none, hari kuwa 25 Nyakanga 1959.

Ni umwami w’u Rwanda waranzwe na byinshi bidasanzwe, byihariye cyane hagereranyijwe n’abamubanjirije bose.

Yavutse mu 1912 atabaruka ku wa 25 Nyakanga 1959, bityo iyi tariki ya 25 Nyakanga isigara mu mitima y’Abanyarwanda biganjemo abakuze, nk’umunsi w’Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa.

Ibintu 15 waba utaramenye ku Mwami Rudahigwa (Igice cya I)

Uretse kuba yarabaye umwami w’u Rwanda, yasogongeye umuco w’abazungu, ivanjili y’abamisiyoneri, irunduka ry’ubukoloni n’inyigisho mvaburayi, bituma aba Umwami uhabanye n’abamubanjirije kuri byinshi.

Ibintu 15 waba utaramenye ku Mwami Mutara III Rudahigwa

Uretse kuba yarabaye umwami w’u Rwanda, yasogongeye umuco w’abazungu, ivanjili y’abamisiyoneri, irunduka ry’ubukoloni n’inyigisho mvaburayi, bituma aba Umwami uhabanye kuri byinshi n’abamubanjirije bose.

1.Niwe Mwami w’u Rwanda wagize amazina menshi kurenza abandi

Mu mateka twumva abami bagiraga amazina azwi, hakiyongeraho n’andi bihariye, bigatuma aba menshi. Abami b’u Rwanda baciye agahigo mu kugira amazina menshi ni: Ruganzu Ndoli Rugambirabagabo Cyitatire cya Mutabazi (Hakaba n’abamwitaga Rugambirirabahunde rwa Muhumuza), undi ni Mibamwe II Sekarongoro II Gisanura Mabokataziganya (amaboko ataziganya) Rugabishabirenge.

Cyakora bombi, ntibagejeje aha Rudahigwa, witwaga Mutara III Rudahigwa Charlès Léon Pierre Nkubito y’Imanzi Cyusa (Umusore w’icyusa) Rukabu.

2. Buri zina rya Mutara Rudahigwa ryari rifite imvano

Mutara III ni izina ry’ubwami, nubwo yakoreye mu ngata Yuhi V Musinga, mu mujyo w’izina rye yabanjirijwe na Mutara II Rwogera.

Rudahigwa ni izina rye bwite yari asanganywe (Izina ry’ubututsi), ariko nyuma yo kwima ingoma, Umwami ntiyabaga agifite ubwoko, inkomoko cyangwa akarere. Rudahigwa biva ku kwanga guhigwa bisobanuye kutaganzwa, kutaneshwa, kutarushwa.

Rukabu ni izina yahawe kubwo kuba Ntabwoba, gushira amanga, no kugira igitsure aho bibaye ngombwa.

Nkubito y’Imanzi na Cyusa ni amazina yatazirwaga kubw’uburanga, umuneza n’ubutwari.

Amazina amwe yayiswe kubwo kuba Ntabwoba, andi ayitwa kubw’uburanga bwe, andi arayabatizwa.

3.Yabatijwe amazina atatu ngo yitiranwe n’ibikomerezwa

Umwami Rudahigwa yasabwe guhitamo izina abatizwa, ahitamo atatu ‘‘Charlès Léon Pierre’’, ngo akunde yitiranwe n’abakomeye bari bariho icyo gihe, mu bo yabashaga guhura nabo:

Charlès yarifashe kubera ko Umuyobozi Mukuru wayoboraga u Rwanda n’u Burundi wari Guverineri Charlès Henri Joseph Voisin.

Léon yarifashe kubera ko yabatijwe na Musenyeri Léon Classe wari ukuriye vicariat ya Kabgayi.

Pièrre yarifashe kugira ngo yitiranwe n’Umuyobozi Mukuru wategekaga ibihugu bitatu bikomanyije, Congo-Mbiligi (DRC), Rwanda na Urundi, ariwe Guverineri Pierre Ryckmans.

4. Umwami wa mbere w’u Rwanda wabaye umusilimu

Mutara Rudahigwa yabaye Umwami wa mbere w’u Rwanda usirimutse, kubera ko yakiriye byinshi mu byazanywe n’abazungu. Niwe wa Mwami wa mbere wicaye ku ntebe y’ishuri, niwe mwami wa mbere w’u Rwanda watunze imodoka ye bwite, niwe wa mbere warishije ikanya, ikiyiko, anarira ku isahani za ruzungu anywera no mu kirahure, mu gihe abamubanjirije bakoreshaga imbehe, icyibo, indosho, inkongoro…

Mutara Rudahigwa yabaye Umwami wa mbere w’u Rwanda usirimutse, kubera ko yakiriye byinshi mu byazanywe n’abazungu

Rudahigwa niwe mwami wa mbere w’u Rwanda wemeye kwambara ibirato (inkweto) mvaburayi n’ingofero mvaburayi, ariko amadarubindi yo yarayanze ngo atazahuma nk’abazungu yitaga ko bareba banyenyeza. Ni we Mwami w’u Rwanda wa mbere wagendeye mu nda y’inyoni (indege). Ni nawe wa mbere wabatijwe.

5.Umwami wa mbere w’u Rwanda watunze abagore bake

Mu bami bose bamubanjirije, Mutara III Rudahigwa niwe watunze abagore bake, kuko yagize babiri bonyine, kandi nabo mu bihe binyuranye. Nyamara hambere, abagore bose bitwaga ab’Umwami, hakaba abatunze benshi nka Kigeli IV Rwabugili, Kigeli III Ndabarasa, Mutara II Semugeshi n’abandi.

Abagore ba Mutara wa III Rudahiga, uwa mbere ni Nyiramakomali bashakanye kuwa 15 Ukwakira 1933 bagatana mu mwaka wa 1940 batabyaranye umwana n’umwe. Bivugwa ko baba baratandukanye kubera kubura urubyaro (nyuma yo gukuramo inda ebyiri), kandi nyamara Umwami agomba gusimburwa n’urubuto rwe (amaraso ye). Hari n’abavuga ko baba baratandukanye ku bwo kuba Rudahigwa yari Umukirisitu Gatolika byahamye, mu gihe umugore we, Umwamikazi Nyiramakomali atabikozwaga, ahubwo we yari yaratsimbaraye kuri gakondo k’abakurambere, nko kubandwa, guterekera no guhanuza.

Umugore wa kabiri Rudahigwa yashatse ni Gicanda wanemeye kubatizwa akitwa Rosalie, ariko uyu nawe nta mwana bigeze babyarana.

6. Umwami Rudahigwa yari muremure bidasanzwe

Nubwo muri rusange abami b’u Rwanda babaga ari barebare, Mutara III Rudahigwa ni umwe mu barebare kurusha. Yakoraga ku mashami maremare y’igiti atacyuriye, atanisumbukuruje, yasumbaga abatware, abagaragu, abazungu n’abandi bayobozi bamugeraga iruhande, kandi uburebure bwe ntibwamubangamiraga ngo agaragare nk’umuntu uhese umugongo. Yari afite uburebure bwa metero ebyiri n’ibice birengaho.

Umwami w’u Rwanda Mutara III Rudahigwa Charles Leon Pierre yavutse muri Werurwe 1911 atanga afite imyaka 48. Yimye ingoma mu gihe cy’imyaka 18. Yatabarutse kuwa 25 Nyakanga 1959, ari nayo nkomoko yo kuba abakomeye ku mateka bafata uyu munsi wa none, nk’umunsi w’Umwami Rudahigwa, unabarwa nk’umwe mu ntwari z’u Rwanda.

Mu ngingo zikomeza, turabagezaho ibindi byamugize umwihariko mu bami, bishingiye ku mico, politiki, impinduramatwara, ubutabera, imigirire n’imigenzereze.

Yiswe umusore udasanzwe, yiswe umusore w’icyusa (Cyusa), abyinirirwa Nkubito y’Imanzi, bamutazira Rukabu, abatizwa Lewo Karoli Petero , izina ry’ubugabe yitwa Mutara, naho irya Kavukire rikaba Rudahigwa.

Yavutse mu 1912 atabaruka ku wa 25 Nyakanga 1959, bityo iyi tariki ya 25 Nyakanga isigara mu mitima y’Abanyarwanda biganjemo abakuze, nk’umunsi w’Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa.

7. Umwami w’Ibigango n’ibiro bisaga 120

Mu gihe abami benshi b’Abanyarwanda bavugwagaho uburebure buhambaye, ariko ntibabe abanyabigango bose, uretse bamwe kandi bake. Abagarukwaho mu nkuru n’ibitekerezo nk’abami bari bfite ibigango harimo Mutara Rwogera, Kigeli Rwabugiri, Ruganzu Bwimba, Ndahiro Cyamatare na Mutara Nsoro Semugeshi.

Aba ariko ntibigeze bakandagia ku munzani ngo hamenywe ingano nyakuru yabo mu biro. Rudahigwa we wabashije kuwukandagiraho yasanzwe afite ibiro 125 anareshya na metero ebyiri zisagaho gato, akagira n’ubwoya bwinshi ku mubiri.

8. Umwami utarimitswe hakurikijwe amahame gakondo n’inzira z’ubucurabwenge

Iyo biba mu gihe cya none, hakavuzwe ko Umwami Mutara atimitswe hakurikijwe Itegeko-Nshinga igihugu kigenderaho (Anti-constitutionnel). Mu gihe cy’abami, harebwaga mbere na mbere amahame gakondo, Umwami akaba azwi n’abiri, hagakurikizwa ubucurabwenge, inzira igenwe ku Mwami uteruye ikivi ikubahirizwa. Ku bwa Mutara yari kwima ingoma hakurikijwe inzira y’Ishora, yatanga agatabarizwa hakurikijwe inzira y’ikirogoto. Ibi byose ntibyubahirijwe.

Rudahigwa yari Umwami wateguwe n’Ababiligi, bamuha uburere n’uburezi biri mu mujyo w’icyo bamwifuzagamo nk’Umwami utazabatambamira mu migenzereze yabo ya gikoloni.

No mu kuvuga imizi y’Umwami wimye, hibanzwe ahanini ku mizi y’Umugabekazi, ubwo bagiraga bati “Uyu mwami twimitse ni Mutara. Izina rye akiri Umututsi ni Rudahigwa. Nyina ni Nyiramavugo. Izina rye akiri Umututsi ni Kankazi, ka Mbanzabigwi ya Rwakagara rwa Gaga rya Mutezintare wa Sesonga ya Makara ya Kiramira cya Mucuzi wa Nyantabana ya Burigande bwa Ngoga ya Gihinira cya Ndiga ya Gahutu ka Serwega rwa Mututsi: akaba umukobwa w’Abega. Nyina ni Nyiranteko ya Nzagura ya Mbonyingabo: akaba umukobwa w’Abashambo. Aho ga nyine, Abega bakabyirana Abami n’Abanyiginya” Ibi ntibyari bihagije ngo bisimbure inzira y’ishora n’imihango yayo.

9. Inkomoko y’izina Ngomanzungu

Izina Ngomanzungu ni rimwe mu mazina ari gukendera, kuko abaryiswe ricyaduka bari gusaza, abandi baratashye (Ntibakiriho), ababyiruka bake barifite ni abakurikije izina ry’igisekuru. Mu kwita amazina, Abanyarwanda bamye bagenura, bikaba uburyo bwo gushima cyangwa kunenga binyuze mu marenga.

Ni nako byagenze ku ngoma ya Rudahigwa, yemeye gukora byinshi byari byaranzwe na Se Musinga wemeye guhara ubwami aho kuyoboka abazungu yitaga abavantara.

Kuba hari byinshi byahindutse mu miyoboree y’u Rwanda, Umwami agasangira ubutegetsi na Rezida, Abamisiyoneri nabo bakagira amabwiriza akarishye ashingiye ku myemerere Mvaburayi (amadini) itarahuzaga n’indangagaciro z’imyemererere n’imibereho gakando ka Kinyarwanda, byatumye abatabasha kwigerera ibukuru bahitamo gutuma amazina ngo Umwami azamenyereho ko bavangiwe , ko nta ngoma Nyarwanda ikiriho, niko kwita abana babo Ngomanzungu, izina ryakwiriye igihugu cyose mu gihe kigufi cyane (1931 – 1934), cyakurikiye iyimikwa rya Musinga.

10. Umwami wegereye cyane rubanda ruto, kurusha abamubanjirije

Mu ndangagaciro nshya za Gikirisitu, Umwami Rudahigwa ntiyakunze kuba uw’icyubahiro cyane udashyikirwa, ahubwo yiyumvise nk’intama y’Imana, n’Abanyarwanda yatuye Yezu na Bikiramariya akabafata nk’intama z’Imana, bityo baba abavandimwe muri Yezu Kirisitu, abishyikiraho kandi abegera cyane mu buryo butigeze bubaho ku bamubanjirije.

Ni kenshi yatunguranaga mu Kiliziya n’ahandi henshi abaturage bakisanga Umwami yabasesekayemo ku misozi, mu bikingi, n’ahandi.

11. Niwe watangije imikino ya Football na Tennis mu Rwanda

Mu gusabana na Rubanda, Umwami Mutara Rudahigwa yatangije umukino wa Tennis mu Rwanda (Bawitaga gukina agatenesi).

Yanashinze ikipe y’umupira w’amaguru yiswe “Amaregura”, anayibera Rutahizamu w’igitangaza, ikipe yapfunyikiraga ibitego byinshi ikaba Amagaju.

Nyuma y’itanga rye Amaregura yahindutse “Rayon Sports”. Ku bwa Rudahigwa umukino w’amaguru (Football) warakunzwe mu Rwanda urakwirakwira, havuka amakipe mato mato, amenshi ntakiriho.

12. Umwami w’u Rwanda wabyiniye i Burayi hamwe n’Umugabekazi

Mu gihe ibisigo bikuru by’abami birimo ikigira kiti “Umwami si umuntu”, Mutara Rudahigwa si ko yabifataga. Ubwo yari i Burayi mu Bubiligi, abazungu babyinnye iby’iwabo, Umwami Rudahigwa arizihirwa ahagurukana n’Umwamikazi Gicanda babyinana nabo mu buryo bw’ingufu n’umunyaruko, nk’uko mubibona muri aya mashusho (Video).

13. Umwami w’amakare n’igitsure, ubugwaneza n’ubumuntu

Umwami nk’umutegetsi wagombwaga icyubahiro gihanitse akanaramywa, nubwo atemeye ko bigera kuri uru rwego, ntiyaburaga kugira igitsure gikomeye aho bibaye ngombwa, ntiyaniganwaga ijambo kandi akagira amakare akomeye.

Niho bakurije kumwita “RUKABU”. Ayo makare ye n’igitsure ariko, byarushwaga ingufu n’ubugwaneza n’ubumuntu, binakurizaho ko aho yanyuraga akabona abaturage bari mu mirimo y’uburetwa bitamushimishaga, niko guca iteka ryo ku wa 1 Mata 1954 rica ubuhake, uburetwa, ikiboko na shiku.

Iki ni cyo cyemezo gikarishye Rudahigwa yafashe atagishije inama abazungu, bikabarakaza, banamusaba kwisubiraho, arabatsembera. Ikiboko na Shiku byafashaga abazungu guhingisha ikawa nyinshi n’ibireti, bigasarurwa bajyana iwabo.

14. Umwami watabarukanye umurundo w’imishinga itarangijwe

Ku bagore babiri yashatse, Mutara III Rudahigwa ntiyigeze abyara. Ibi byongereye ikibazo mu mihango y’abiru n’ubucurabwenge bwagombaga kugena umusimbura w’umwami, kandi yibyariye.

Yasize ingoro yubakirwaga ku Rwesero imaze kuzura ariko atarayitaha. Yasize adasabye ubwigenge yari yakereye kujya gusaba muri LONI, agashiramo umwuka nyuma yo guterwa Penicilin i Usumbura aho yagombaga gufatira urukingo, akanahabonera Visa.

Rudahigwa yatanze atabashije kugarura Itorero n’Urugerero byari byarakuweho n’abakoloni mu 1926, nubwo abamubaga hafi bazi bahamya neza ko ari kimwe mu nzozi nkuru yari afite.

15. Umwamikazi yanze ko umugogo w’umwami usuzumwa

Ubwo umugogo w’Umwami wagarukaga mu Rwanda, inkuru yari yabaye kimomo ko umwami yatanze amarabira atanaberanye (atarwaye), bihwihwiswa ko yarozwe.

Ababiligi basabye Umwamikazi Rozalia Gicanda uburenganzira bwo gusuzuma umugogo wa Rudahigwa (Autopsie), abasobanuza uko bigenda. Acyumva ko bisaba kuwubaga yarabahakaniye, ati: “Ntimuri bumuzure nta mpamvu yo kumutobatoba”.

Mu mushinga we wo gusaba ubwigenge, Rudahigwa yari afite inzozi z’u Rwanda rwifatira ibyemezo, rutayoborerwamo na Rezida cyangwa se izindi nzego z’abakoloni.

NTWALI John Williams

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